平成17年度英文学科公開講座



“ロード・オブ・ザ・リング”と言語の世界

作品世界の架空の言語と英語の読み
―登場人物や地名などの正しい読み方は?

担当:黒田 誠

  

(9月、毎週土曜日午後1時より、和洋女子大学佐倉セミナーハウスにて開催)

問い合わせ先:英文学科オフィス 0473-71-1375

▼講座内容

 映画『ロード・オブ・ザ・リング』の原作である『指輪の王』(The Lord of the Rings)は、オクスフォード大学で言語学を研究していたJ. R. R. トルキンが、神話や伝説の伝承知識に加えて、専門の古代言語に関する膨大な情報を活用して創りあげた世界となっている。実はエピソードの各々がいくつもの架空の言語の文法や語法の生成などと密接に関連して語り進められているのである。架空の作品世界の中のこととは言いながら、これらには言語学上の確かな裏付けがあり、実際の学術的考察として読み取ることが可能なものである。
 本講座では、映画のいくつかのシーンをもとにして、原作の主要な題材を形成していた言語学的設定とストーリーとの関連部分を指摘すると共に、『指輪の王』の巻末に作者が加えた、作中の人名・地名等の読み方に関する付録の記載を参考にして、英語のスペリングと実際の読みとの関係、さらに発音と読み方について専門的な発音記号を用いることなく、通常の英語の文で説明する表現法などについて解説していくことにする。

▼参考テキスト

Pronunciation of words and Names

The Westron or Common speech has been entirely translated into English equivalents. All Hobbit names and special words are intended to be pronounced accordingly: for example, Bolger has g as in bulge, and mathom rhymes with fathom.
In transcribing the ancient scripts I have tried to represent the original sounds (so far as they can be determined) with fair accuracy, and at the same time to produce words and names that do not look uncouth in modern letters. The High-elven Quenya has been spelt as much like Latin as its sounds allowed. For this reason c has been preferred to k in both Eldarin languages.
The following points may be observed by those who are interested in such details.


consonants

C has always the value of k even before e and i: celeb"silver" should be pronounced as keleb.
CH is only used to represent the sound heard in bach (in German or Welsh), not that in English church. Except at the end of words and before t this sound was weakened to h in the speech of Gondor, and that change has been recognized in a few names, such as Rohan, Rohirrim. (Imrahil is a Numenorean name.)
DH represents the voiced (soft) th of English these clothes. It is usually related to d, as in S. galadh "tree" compared with Q. alda; but is sometimes derived from n+r ,as in Caradhras "Redhorn" from caran-rass.

--

Note that consonants written twice as, tt, ll, ss, nn, represents long or "double" consonants. At the end of words of more than one syllable these were usually shortened: as in Rohan from Rochann (archaic Rochand).

--

vowels

For vowels the letters i, e, a, o, u are used, and (in Sindarin only) y. As far as can be determined the sounds represented by these letters (other than y) were of normal kind, though doubtless many local varieties escape detection. That is, the sounds were approximately those represented by i, e, a, o, u in English machine, were, father, for, brute, irrespective of quantity.

--

In Sindarin the diphthongs are written ae, ai, ei, oe, ui, and au. Other combinations are not diphthongal. The writing of final au as aw is in accordance with English custom, but is actually not uncommon in Feanorian spellings.
All these diphthongs were "falling" diphthongs, that is stressed on the first element, and composed of the simple vowels run together. Thus ai, ei, oi, ui are intended to be pronounced respectively as the vowels in English rye (not ray), grey, boy, ruin; and au (aw) as in loud, how, and not as in laud, haw.
There is nothing in English closely corresponding to ae, oe, eu; ae and oe may be pronounced as ai, oi.



戻る